A list of Jerry's publications on Google Scholar. 

http://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&user=i9lCUk8AAAAJ&view_op=list_works&gmla=AJsN-F6Yc9sUnHGCCtIBOBRmLEsseUidr9PVRayMjCN1Oc61t323X74ZPZtpX_Pc6RgsLzFI95HOt-eRDibVqg85bZA5g0cQkbpVVcnMO223q3K4rcuWaNYrdi93JHtxUucAkAEKBvjo


Terahertz Stimulate Specific Signaling Pathways in Human Cells

I Echchgadda, JE Grundt, CZ Cerna, CC Roth, BL Ibey, GJ Wilmink

Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMW-THz)

Abstract—Terahertz (THz) waves can influence gene expression and consequently could 
affect the cell phenotypic properties. In this study, we evaluated the cell response of human 
cells exposed to THz radiation. We show that 2.52 THz frequency alters the expression of 
specific messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs), microRNAs and intracellular signaling 
pathways, which were not observed in a thermally-matched bulk-heating control.


Invited review article: current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation

GJ Wilmink, JE Grundt

Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 32 (10)

Abstract Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used in a 
host of medical, military, and security applications. For example, THz systems are now being 
tested at international airports for security screening purposes, at major medical centers for 
cancer and burn diagnosis, and at border patrol checkpoints for identification of concealed 
explosives, drugs, and weapons. Recent advances in THz applications have stimulated 
renewed interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range.


State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

CZ Cerna, DP Elam, I Echchgadda, MA Sloan, GJ Wilmink

SPIE BiOS, 89411H-89411H-9

Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at 
international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for 
cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in 
an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. 
Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, 
identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards.


Investigation of a direct effect of nanosecond pulse electric fields on mitochondria

LE Estlack, CC Roth, CZ Cerna, GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey

SPIE BiOS, 89411S-89411S-9

The unique cellular response to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) 
exposure, as compared to longer pulse exposure, has been theorized to be due to 
permeabilization of intracellular organelles including the mitochondria. In this investigation, 
we utilized a high-throughput oxygen and pH sensing system (Seahorse® XF24 
extracellular flux analyzer) to assess the mitochondrial activity of Jurkat and U937 cells after 
nsPEF. The XF Analyzer uses a transient micro-chamber of only a few μL in specialized


Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXV; and Terahertz for Biomedical Applications

ED Jansen, RJ Thomas, GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey

Proc. of SPIE Vol 8941, 894101-1

This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 
8941, including the Title Page, Copyright Information, Table of Contents, and the 
Conference Committee listing.©(2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical 
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.


Using a portable terahertz spectrometer to measure the optical properties of in vivo human skin

I Echchgadda, JA Grundt, M Tarango, BL Ibey, T Tongue, M Liang, H Xin, ...

Journal of biomedical optics 18 (12), 120503-120503

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy systems permit the measurement of a 
tissue's hydration level. This feature makes THz spectrometers excellent tools for the 
noninvasive assessment of skin; however, current systems are large, heavy and not ideal for 
clinical settings. We previously demonstrated that a portable, compact THz spectrometer 
permitted measurement of porcine skin optical properties that were comparable to those 
collected with conventional systems.


Guest Editorial: Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for biology and biomedicine

E MacPherson, GP Gallerano, GS Park, H Hintzsche, GJ Wilmink

Biomedical and Health Informatics, IEEE Journal 

IN this issue of the IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS (J-BHI), 
we have a special section on Terahertz Imaging and Spectroscopy for Biology and 
Biomedicine. This special section has been coordinated with the support of the IEEE 
TRANSACTIONS ON TERAHERTZ SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY (T-TST) to promote and 
inspire research in potential biomedical applications of the terahertz technology. 


Temporal Gene Expression Kinetics for Human Keratinocytes Exposed to Hyperthermic Stress

I Echchgadda, CC Roth, CZ Cerna, GJ Wilmink

Cells 2

The gene expression kinetics for human cells exposed to hyperthermic stress are 
not well characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the genes that are 
differentially expressed in human epidermal keratinocyte (HEK) cells exposed to 
hyperthermic stress. In order to obtain temporal gene expression kinetics, we exposed HEK 
cells to a heat stress protocol (44 C for 40 min) and used messenger RNA (mRNA) 
microarrays at 0 h, 4 h and 24 h post-exposure.


Determination of the optical properties of melanin-pigmented human skin equivalents using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

D Lipscomb, I Echchgadda, XG Peralta, GJ Wilmink

SPIE BiOS

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) methods have been utilized in 
previous studies in order to characterize the optical properties of skin and its primary 
constituents (ie, water, collagen, and keratin). However, similar experiments have not yet 
been performed to investigate whether melanocytes and the melanin pigment that they 
synthesize contribute to skin's optical properties. 


Changes in protein expression of U937 and Jurkat cells exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric fields

EK Moen, CC Roth, C Cerna, L Estalck, G Wilmink, BL Ibey

SPIE BiOS

Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) to various biological cell 
lines has been to shown to cause many diverse effects, including poration of the plasma 
membrane, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, blebbing, apoptosis, and 
intracellular calcium bursts. The underlying mechanism (s) responsible for these diverse 
responses are poorly understood. 


Development of terahertz (THz) microfluidic devices for “Lab-on-a-Chip” applications

Q Tang, M Liang, Y Lu, PK Wong, GJ Wilmink, H Xin

SPIE BiOS

Microfluidic devices have been widely used in manipulation and analysis of 
individual cells in small-volume solutions. It could be potentially used for studies of the 
interaction of THz radiation with biomolecules and cells in aqueous media. We present a 
prototype microfluidic device that can be used for controlled cellular exposures to THz radiation. 


Terahertz and Ultrashort Electromagnetic Pulses for Biomedical Applications

GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey

Proc. of SPIE Vol 8585

This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 
8585, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, and the 
Conference Committee listing.©(2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical 
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.


Terahertz spectroscopy of dry, hydrated, and thermally denatured biological macromolecules

D Lipscomb, I Echchgadda, BL Ibey, H Beier, RJ Thomas, X Peralta, ...

SPIE BiOS

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is an effective technique to probe 
the intermolecular and collective vibrational modes of biological macromolecules at THz 
frequencies. To date, the vast majority of spectroscopic studies have been performed on 
dehydrated biomolecular samples. Given the fact that all biochemical processes occur in 
aqueous environments and water is required for proper protein folding and function, we 
hypothesize that valuable information can be gained from spectroscopic studies.


Impact of nanosecond pulsed electric fields on primary hippocampal neurons

CC Roth, JA Payne, MA Kuipers, GL Thompson, GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey

Proc. of SPIE Vol 8207

Cellular exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) are believed to 
cause immediate creation of nanopores in the plasma membrane. These nanopores enable 
passage of small ions, but remain impermeable to larger molecules like propidium iodide. 
Previous work has shown that nanopores are stable for minutes after exposure, suggesting 
that formation of nanopores in excitable cells could lead to prolonged action potential inhibition.


Terahertz radiation triggers a signature gene expression profile in human cells

JE Grundt, C Cerna, CC Roth, BL Ibey, D Lipscomb, I Echchgadda, ...

Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves 

The effects of Terahertz (THz) radiation on biological materials are not well 
characterized. In this study, we show that 2.52 THz radiation triggers human cells to 
dramatically up-regulate the expression of genes that encode for proteins involved in the 
cellular stress response and inflammation.


Terahertz radiation preferentially activates the expression of genes responsible for the regulation of plasma membrane properties

GJ Wilmink, JE Grundt, C Cerna, CC Roth, MA Kuipers, D Lipscomb, ...

Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz)

Terahertz (THz) radiation is known to cause effects on cellular membranes; 
however, the mechanism by which these effects are mediated is unclear. In this study, we 
show that THz radiation induces the expression of specific genes and signaling pathways 
that regulate plasma membrane properties.


Invited review article: current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation

GJ Wilmink, JE Grundt

Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 32 (10)

Abstract Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used in a 
host of medical, military, and security applications. For example, THz systems are now being 
tested at international airports for security screening purposes, at major medical centers for 
cancer and burn diagnosis, and at border patrol checkpoints for identification of concealed 
explosives, drugs, and weapons.


Development of a compact terahertz time-domain spectrometer for the measurement of the optical properties of biological tissues

GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey, T Tongue, B Schulkin, N Laman, XG Peralta, ...

Journal of biomedical optics 16 (4)

Terahertz spectrometers and imaging systems are currently being evaluated as 
biomedical tools for skin burn assessment. These systems show promise, but due to their 
size and weight, they have restricted portability, and are impractical for military and 
battlefield settings where space is limited. In this study, we developed and tested the 
performance of a compact, light, and portable THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) device. 


Lysosomal exocytosis in response to subtle membrane damage following nanosecond pulse exposure

DR Dalzell, CC Roth, JA Bernhard, JA Payne, GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey

SPIE BiOS, 79010J-79010J-9

The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to 
nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that 
when cells are exposed to nsEP, ion permeable nanopores (< 2nm) are created in the 
plasma membrane in contrast to larger diameter pores (> 2nm) created by longer micro and 
millisecond duration pulses.


Local plasma membrane permeabilization of living cells by nanosecond electric pulses using atomic force microscopy

G Thompson, JA Payne, CC Roth, GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey

SPIE BiOS

Numerous studies provide evidence that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs) can 
trigger the formation of nanopores in the plasma membranes of cells. However, the 
biophysical mechanism responsible for nanopore formation is not well understood. In this 
study, we hypothesize that membrane damage induced by nsEPs is primarily dependent on 
the local molecular composition and mechanical strength of the plasma membrane.


Accelerating thermal deposition modeling at terahertz frequencies using GPUs

M Doroski, M Knight, J Payne, JE Grundt, BL Ibey, R Thomas, WP Roach, ...

SPIE BiOS

Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods are widely used to model the 
propagation of electromagnetic radiation in biological tissues. High-performance central 
processing units (CPUs) can execute FDTD simulations for complex problems using 3-D 
geometries and heterogeneous tissue material properties. However, when FDTD 
simulations are employed at terahertz (THz) frequencies excessively long processing times 
are required to account for finer resolution voxels and larger computational modeling.


Gene expression profile of Jurkat cells exposed to high power terahertz radiation

JE Grundt, CC Roth, BD Rivest, ML Doroski, J Payne, BL Ibey, GJ Wilmink

SPIE BiOS, 78970E-78970E-10

Terahertz (THz) radiation sources are now being used in a host of military, defense, 
and medical applications. Widespread employment of these applications has prompted 
concerns regarding the health effects associated with THz radiation. In this study, we 
examined the gene expression profile of mammalian cells exposed to THz radiation. We 
hypothesized that if THz radiation couples directly to cellular constituents, then exposed 
cells may express a specific gene expression profile indicative of ensuing damage.


Determination of cellular injury and death thresholds following exposure to high voltage 10ns electrical pulses

BL Ibey, CC Roth, JA Bernhard, AG Pakhomov, GJ Wilmink, ...

SPIE BiOS, 79010G-79010G-8

 Intense, nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) have been introduced as a 
novel modality to alter cellular function, with a mechanism of action qualitatively different 
from micro-and millisecond duration pulses used in electroporation. In this study, we 
determined the thresholds for plasma membrane injury (within 15 minutes) and cell death (at 
24 hours) for 4 different cell types (CHO-K1, HeLa, Jurkat and U937).


Nanopore formation in neuroblastoma cells following ultrashort electric pulse exposure

CC Roth, JA Payne, GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey

SPIE BiOS, 788354-788354-7

Ultrashort or nanosecond electrical pulses (USEP) cause repairable damage to the 
plasma membranes of cells through formation of nanopores. These nanopores are able to 
pass small ions such as sodium, calcium, and potassium, but remain impermeable to larger 
molecules like trypan blue and propidium iodide. What remains uncertain is whether 
generation of nanopores by ultrashort electrical pulses can inhibit action potentials in 
excitable cells.


In vitro investigation of the biological effects associated with human dermal fibroblasts exposed to 2.52 THz radiation

GJ Wilmink, BD Rivest, CC Roth, BL Ibey, JA Payne, LX Cundin, ...

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 43 (2), 152-163

Terahertz (THz) radiation sources are increasingly being used in military, 
defense, and medical applications. However, the biological effects associated with this type 
of radiation are not well characterized. In this study, we evaluated the cellular and molecular 
response of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to THz radiation. Methods In vitro exposures 
were performed in a temperature-controlled chamber using a molecular gas THz laser (2.52 
THz, 84.8 mW cm− 2, durations: 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 minutes).


Dose-dependent thresholds of 10-ns electric pulse induced plasma membrane disruption and cytotoxicity in multiple cell lines

BL Ibey, CC Roth, AG Pakhomov, JA Bernhard, GJ Wilmink, ...

PLoS One 6 (1), e15642

In this study, we determined the LD 50 (50% lethal dose) for cell death, and the ED 
50 (50% of cell population staining positive) for propidium (Pr) iodide uptake, and 
phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization for several commonly studied cell lines (HeLa, 
Jurkat, U937, CHO-K1, and GH3) exposed to 10-ns electric pulses (EP). We found that the 
LD 50 varied substantially across the cell lines studied, increasing from 51 J/g for Jurkat to 
1861 J/g for HeLa. 


Microarray analysis of cellular thermotolerance

JT Beckham, GJ Wilmink, SR Opalenik, MA Mackanos, AA Abraham, ...

Lasers in surgery and medicine 42 (10), 912-925

While many genes were similarly upregulated, the main difference between cell 
types was an increase in transcription factors and nucleic acid binding proteins. Several 
genes known to be involved in the heat response were upregulated more than twofold 
(Hsp70, Hsp40, Hsp110, Hsp25, Atf3), however, another well studied heat responsive gene 
Hsp90 only increased by 1.5-fold under these conditions despite its role in thermotolerance. 


Selective cytotoxicity of intense nanosecond-duration electric pulses in mammalian cells

BL Ibey, AG Pakhomov, BW Gregory, VA Khorokhorina, CC Roth, ...

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 1800 (11), 1210-1219

Nanosecond electric pulses (EP) disrupt cell membrane and organelles 
and cause cell death in a manner different from the conventional irreversible electroporation. 
We explored the cytotoxic effect of 10-ns EP (quantitation, mechanisms, efficiency, and 
specificity) in comparison with 300-ns, 1.8-and 9-μs EP. METHODS: Effects in Jurkat and 
U937 cells were characterized by survival assays, DNA electrophoresis and flow cytometry. 


Identification of microRNAs associated with hyperthermia-induced cellular stress response

GJ Wilmink, CL Roth, BL Ibey, N Ketchum, J Bernhard, CZ Cerna, ...

Cell Stress and Chaperones 15 (6), 1027-1038

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that play a critical role in the 
coordination of fundamental cellular processes. Recent studies suggest that miRNAs 
participate in the cellular stress response (CSR), but their specific involvement remains 
unclear. In this study, we identify a group of thermally regulated miRNAs (TRMs) that are 
associated with the CSR. Using miRNA microarrays, we show that dermal fibroblasts 
differentially express 123 miRNAs when exposed to hyperthermia. 


Plasma membrane permeabilization by trains of ultrashort electric pulses

BL Ibey, DG Mixon, JA Payne, A Bowman, K Sickendick, GJ Wilmink, ...

Bioelectrochemistry 79 (1), 114-121

Ultrashort electric pulses (USEP) cause long-lasting increase of cell membrane electrical 
conductance, and that a single USEP increased cell membrane electrical conductance 
proportionally to the absorbed dose (AD) with a threshold of about 10mJ/g. The present 
study extends quantification of the membrane permeabilization effect to multiple USEP and 
employed a more accurate protocol that identified USEP effect as the difference between 
post-and pre-exposure conductance values (Δg) in individual cells.


SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONDITIONING ANIMAL TISSUE USING LASER LIGHT

JD Wells, DE Jansen, GJ Wilmink, JM Davidson, CA Lemaire

EP Patent 2,207,595

Systems and methods for prophylactic measures aimed at improving wound repair. In some 
embodiments, laser-mediated preconditioning would enhance surgical wound healing that 
was correlated with hsp70 expression. Using a pulsed laser (λ= 1850 nm, Tp= 2 ms, 50 Hz, 
H= 7.64 mJ/cm2) the skin of transgenic mice that contain an hsp70 promoter-driven 
luciferase were preconditioned 12 hours before surgical incisions were made.


Measurement of the optical properties of skin using terahertz time-domain spectroscopic techniques

GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey, T Tongue, B Schulkin, X Peralta, BD Rivest, ...

BiOS, 75620J-75620J-4

Terahertz (THz) radiation is increasingly being used in biomedical imaging and 
spectroscopy applications. These techniques show tremendous promise to provide new 
sophisticated tools for the improved detection of skin cancer. However, despite recent efforts 
to develop these applications, few studies have been conducted to characterize the optical 
properties of skin at THz frequencies. Such information is required to better understand THz-
tissue interactions, and is critical for determining the feasibility of proposed applications.


Damage thresholds for terahertz radiation

DR Dalzell, J McQuade, R Vincelette, B Ibey, J Payne, R Thomas, ...

BiOS, 75620M-75620M-8

Several international organizations establish minimum safety standards to ensure 
that workers and the general population are protected against adverse health effects 
associated with electromagnetic radiation. Suitable standards are typically defined using 
published experimental data. To date, few experimental studies have been conducted at 
Terahertz (THz) frequencies, and as a result, current THz standards have been defined 
using extrapolated estimates from neighboring spectral regions.


Determination of death thresholds and identification of terahertz (THz)-specific gene expression signatures

GJ Wilmink, BL Ibey, CL Roth, RL Vincelette, BD Rivest, CB Horn, ...

BiOS, 75620K-75620K-8

In recent years, numerous security, military, and medical applications have been 
developed which use Terahertz (THz) radiation. These developments have heightened 
concerns in regards to the potential health risks that are associated with this type of 
radiation. To determine the cellular and molecular effects caused by THz radiation, we 
exposed several human cell lines to high-power THz radiation, and then we determined 
death thresholds and gene expression profiles.


Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation

GJ Wilmink, BD Rivest, BL Ibey, CL Roth, J Bernhard, WP Roach

BiOS, 75620L-75620L-10

The biological effects associated with Terahertz (THz) radiation are not well 
characterized. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of human dermal 
fibroblasts exposed to an optically-pumped molecular gas THz laser (υ= 2.52 THz, 
irradiance= 84.8 mW/cm 2, exposure duration= 5 to 80 minutes). Computational dosimetry 
was conducted using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling techniques. Empirical 
dosimetry was conducted using infrared cameras and thermocouples.


DETERMINATION OF THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SKIN IN THE TERAHERTZ WAVELENGTH RANGE USING TIME-DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES

G Wilmink, B Ibey, T Thomas, B Shulkin, X Peralta, B Rivest, W Roach

LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, 17-18


A signature microRNA expression profile for the cellular response to thermal stress

GJ Wilmink, CC Roth, N Ketchum, BL Ibey, A Waterworth, M Suarez, ...

SPIE BiOS: Biomedical Optics, 71750U-71750U-11

Recently, an extensive layer of intra-cellular signals was discovered that was 
previously undetected by genetic radar. It is now known that this layer consists primarily of a 
class of short noncoding RNA species that are referred to as microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs 
regulate protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level, and studies have shown that they 
are involved in many fundamental cellular processes.


The optical properties of biological tissues in the terahertz wavelength range

GJ Wilmink, BD Rivest, BL Ibey, LX Cundin, EC Haywood, WP Roach

SPIE BiOS: Biomedical Optics, 717507-717507-8

The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is defined as 
frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz. The optical properties of biological tissues have 
been characterized in neighboring spectral regions; however, few studies have been 
conducted that have examined these properties in the THz wavelength range.


Optical property of human skin

LX Cundin, WP Roach, G Wilmink

SPIE BiOS: Biomedical Optics, 717517-717517-9

The optical property of biological skin is reconstructed from published experimental 
absorption data. A smooth chart of all relevant data is formed by splicing, interpolation and 
extrapolation methods. The regularized set of absorption data is transformed through 
Kramers-Krö nig relations to yield a set of theoretical index of refraction for biological skin. 
The well known absorption characteristics of pure liquid water provide supplemental 
information for missing data. 


IDENTIFICATION OF A FAMILY OF THERMAL STRESS SPECIFIC BIOMARKERS

G Wilmink, C Roth, W Roach

LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, 10-11


Role of HSP70 in cellular thermotolerance

JT Beckham, GJ Wilmink, MA Mackanos, K Takahashi, CH Contag, ...

Lasers in surgery and medicine 40 (10), 704-715

A time gap of 4 hours between preconditioning and the thermal insult was shown to 
be the most effective for thermotolerance with statistical confidence of P< 0.05. The benefit of 
preshocking was largely abrogated in Hsp70-deficient cells. The Arrhenius data showed that 
preshocking leads to increases in the activation energies, E a, and increases in frequency 
factors, A. 


SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONDITIONING ANIMAL TISSUE USING LASER LIGHT

JD Wells, ED Jansen, GJ Wilmink, JM Davidson, CA Lemaire

US Patent App. 12/254,832

Systems and methods for prophylactic measures aimed at improving wound repair. In some 
embodiments, laser-mediated preconditioning would enhance surgical wound healing that 
was correlated with hsp70 expression. Using a pulsed laser (λ= 1850 nm, Tp= 2 ms, 50 Hz, 
H= 7.64 mJ/cm2) the skin of transgenic mice that contain an hsp70 promoter-driven 
luciferase were preconditioned 12 hours before surgical incisions were made.


In-vivo optical imaging of hsp70 expression to assess collateral tissue damage associated with infrared laser ablation of skin

GJ Wilmink, SR Opalenik, JT Beckham, MA Mackanos, LB Nanney, ...

Journal of biomedical optics 13 (5), 054066-054066-12

Laser surgical ablation is achieved by selecting laser parameters that remove 
confined volumes of target tissue and cause minimal collateral damage. Previous studies 
have measured the effects of wavelength on ablation, but neglected to measure the cellular 
impact of ablation on cells outside the lethal zone. In this study, we use optical imaging in 
addition to conventional assessment techniques to evaluate lethal and sublethal collateral 
damage after ablative surgery with a free-electron laser (FEL). 


Snacks 4 the Brain--Forum on Biomedical Engineering

S Merrick, SS Klein, J Beckham, GJ Wilmink

Vanderbilt University

Includes descriptive metadata provided by producer in MP3 file:" Snacks 4 the Brain!-
Podcasts-Snacks 4 the Brain--Forum on Biomedical Engineering." Scott Merrick presents 
audio from a forum for young people on biomedical engineering, sponsored by the 
Vanderbilt Center for Science Outreach and held at the Adventure Science Center in 
Nashville on January 12, 2006. 


Snacks 4 the Brain--Jerry Wilmink

S Merrick, GJ Wilmink

Vanderbilt University

Includes descriptive metadata provided by producer in MP3 file:" Snacks 4 the Brain!-
Podcasts-Snacks 4 the Brain--Jerry Wilmink." Scott Merrick talks to Gerald Joseph" Jerry" 
Wilmink, a doctoral student in biomedical engineering at Vanderbilt. Wilmink works in a 
biomedical engineering optics laboratory, researching laser damage to skin tissue cells; the 
information obtained is of interest to the military for protection of soldiers.


Molecular imaging-assisted optimization of hsp70 expression during laser-induced thermal preconditioning for wound repair enhancement

GJ Wilmink, SR Opalenik, JT Beckham, AA Abraham, LB Nanney, ...

Journal of Investigative Dermatology 129 (1), 205-216

Abstract Patients at risk for impaired healing may benefit from prophylactic measures aimed 
at improving wound repair. Several photonic devices claim to enhance repair by thermal and 
photochemical mechanisms. We hypothesized that laser-induced thermal preconditioning 
would enhance surgical wound healing that was correlated with hsp70 expression.


Molecular imaging-assisted optimization of laser preconditioning for wound repair enhancement

GJ Wilmink, SR Opalenik, LB Nanney, A Mahadevan-Jansen, ...

WOUND REPAIR AND REGENERATION 16 (2), A26-A26


Laser thermal preconditioning enhances dermal wound repair

GJ Wilmink, T Carter, JM Davidson, ED Jansen

Biomedical Optics (BiOS) 2008, 68420O-68420O-10

Preconditioning tissues with an initial mild thermal stress, thereby eliciting a stress 
response, can serve to protect tissue from subsequent stresses. Patients at risk for impaired 
healing, such as diabetics, can benefit from therapeutic methods which enhance wound 
repair. We present a laser thermal preconditioning protocol that accelerates cutaneous 
wound repair in a murine model.


Use of optical reporter genes to assess sublethal cellular damage following skin ablation

GJ Wilmink, SR Opalenik, JM Davidson, ED Jansen

Biomedical Optics (BiOS) 2008, 685403-685403-9

Numerous medical procedures utilize pulsed lasers to remove unwanted biological 
tissue. Mid-infrared wavelengths which preferentially target protein absorption bands ablate 
tissue more efficiently than wavelengths targeting water absorption. However, the 
mechanism responsible for this finding has not been established. In this report, we combine 
optical imaging and conventional techniques to assess lethal and sublethal collateral 
damage after ablative surgery with a Free Electron Laser (FEL).


Laser preconditioning augments cutaneous wound repair in a diabetic murine model

AA Abraham, GJ Wilmink, JT Beckham, JM Davidson, ED Jansen

LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, 4-4


Induction of thermotolerance in laser irradiated tissue

ED Jansen, GJ Wilmink, JT Beckham, JM Davidson

LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, 4-4


Laser thermal preconditioning enhances dermal wound repair [6842A-23]

GJ Wilmink, T Carter, JM Davidson, ED Jansen

PROCEEDINGS-SPIE THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING 6842, 6842


Use of optical reporter genes to assess sublethal cellular damage following skin ablation [6854-02]

GJ Wilmink, SR Opalenik, JM Davidson, ED Jansen

PROCEEDINGS-SPIE THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING 6854, 6854


Using Optical Imaging Methods to Assess Laser-Tissue Interactions

GJ Wilmink

Vanderbilt University

Abstract Recent years have seen an explosive increase in the use of lasers for medical 
applications, particularly in the field of dermatology where they are commonly used to 
achieve aesthetic, surgical, and therapeutic clinical objectives. Effective cutaneous laser 
procedures are achieved by tailoring the operating parameters of the laser to the physical 
and optical properties of the skin. Ideal laser parameters are selected to optimize therapeutic 
efficacy while minimizing unwanted side effects and tissue damage.


Wavelength-dependent dynamics of heat shock protein 70 expression in free electron laser wounds

GJ Wilmink, JT Beckham, M Mackanos, CH Contag, JM Davidson, ...

Biomedical Optics (BiOS) 2007, 644003-644003-12

Many medical laser procedures require selecting laser operating parameters that 
minimize undesirable tissue damage. In this study, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene 
expression was used as a sensitive marker for laser-induced thermal damage. Wound repair 
and hsp70 expression were compared after surgery with the free electron laser (FEL) as a 
function of wavelength (λ) and radiant exposure (H). Damage was assessed at λ= 6.45, 6.10, 
and 2.94 μm using 8-20 J/cm 2.


Wavelength-dependent dynamics of heat shock protein 70 expression in free electron laser wounds [6440-02]

GJ Wilmink, JT Beckham, M Mackanos, CH Contag, JM Davidson, ...

PROCEEDINGS-SPIE THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING 6440, 644003


Wavelength-dependence of heat shock protein 70 in free electron laser wounds

GJ Wilmink, JM Davidson, ED Jansen

LASERS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE, 45-45


Assessing laser-tissue damage with bioluminescent imaging

GJ Wilmink, SR Opalenik, JT Beckham, JM Davidson, ED Jansen

Journal of biomedical optics 11 (4), 041114-041114-15

Effective medical laser procedures are achieved by selecting laser parameters that 
minimize undesirable tissue damage. Traditionally, human subjects, animal models, and 
monolayer cell cultures have been used to study wound healing, tissue damage, and 
cellular effects of laser radiation. Each of these models has significant limitations, and 
consequently, a novel skin model is needed. 



SPECIAL MINI-ISSUE ON TERAHERTZ IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPYFOR BIOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE

E MacPherson, GP Gallerano, GS Park, H Hintzsche, GJ Wilmink


Cytotoxicity of Ultrashort Electric Pulse Exposure in Multiple Cell Lines

BL Ibey, CC Roth, JA Bernhard, GJ Wilmink, AG Pakhomov

Recent studies have shown that cells exposed to ultrashort electric pulses (USEP) exhibit 
multiple biological responses spanning from plasma membrane disruption to nuclear 
granulation [1-6]. Few studies have methodically investigated the lethal effects of such 
pulses across diverse cell culture lines [7-8]. The goal of this study was to determine whether 
diverse cell lines respond differently to USEP exposure.